Chris Smeenk (UWO) asks, "what do you take to be the canonical texts post-1980 in philosophy of science and/or HPS? By canonical I mean the kind of texts that should be required readings for graduate students entering the field." I like this question because it forces us to think about the Post-Kuhnian (etc) area.
Luckily, my working library is being moved to Ghent, so I had to respond without looking at the books I own.
I decided to focus on books (so this leaves out David Malament's, Howard Stein's and George Smith's articles--all personal favorites). I limit myself to one per author. (I also excluded philosophy of mind!) Maybe somebody else can start an articles section?
General Philosophy of Science (unranked!):
1. Nancy Cartwright, "How the Laws of Physics Lie"
2. William Wimsatt, "Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings: Piecewise Approximations to Reality"
3. Tim Maudlin The Metaphysics within Phyisics
4. Ian Hacking, Representing and Intervening
5. James Woodward, Making Things Happen
6. Morgan/Morrison, Models as Mediators
7. Stathos Psillos, Scientific Realism
8. Peter Lipton, Inference to the Best Explanation
9. Eliot Sober, Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology
10. Helen Longino Science as Social Knowledge.
1. Michael Friedman, Kant and the Exact Sciences
2. Gary Hatfield, The Natural and the Normative
3. James Lennox, Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology
4. I.B. Cohen & G.E. Smith The Cambridge Companion to newton
5. Jed Buchwald, The rise of the Wave-Theory of Light
6. Peter Gallison How Experiments End.
7. Dan Garber, Descartes Metaphysical Physics
8. George Reisch, How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy
9. Ian Mueller, Philosophy of Mathematics and Deductive Structure in Euclid
10. Alan Richardson, Carnap's Construction of the World
I am painfully aware I excluded a lot of people I admire...